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Galoot Glossary
Abrasive Cloth
A coated abrasive with a cloth backing. Emery cloth is an example.
Any substance such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, garnet, emery, flint or similar materials that is used to abrade or sand wood, metal or other materials. Substances such as India, Arkansas, crystolon, silicon carbide and waterstones used to sharpen steel edged tools are included.
A man-made resin used in paints and other finishing products. Most commonly used in water-emulsion paints and varnishes.
A substance that is capable of bonding material together by surface attachment.
Adhesive Size
Adhesive used to apply gold leaf or bronze powder. Rabbit skin glue, varnish, or polyvinyl adhesive are frequently used for this purpose.
An axe-like tool with its blade at right angles to its handle, used to shape or dress timbers. An adze differs from an axe in that it's blade is at right angles to an axe's blade. A hollowing adze is used to rough out the upper section of Windsor seats.
Air-dried lumber
Lumber that was dried, usually outside, to an equilibrium moisture content with the air it was exposed to. Fully air-dried wood may reach a moisture content of 12%.
Airless Spray Equipment
Spray equipment that uses a hydraulic pump to pressurize liquid instead of using compressed air.
A chemical that will neutralize an acid. Strong alkali can burn skin. Referred to in chemistry as a "base."
A synthetic resin frequently used in oil-based paint.
Allen Head
A screw head with a recess requiring a hexagon shaped key, used mainly on machinery. These may be in metric or SAE sizes.
Alligator chuck
A two-piece bit brace chuck that pivots at one end. Used mainly for auger bits having a tapered square lug at the attachment end.
Numerous cracks in a paint film. The pattern of cracks resembles alligator skin. Caused by inflexibility in the paint, too heavy a build-up of old coats of paint, incompatibility between paint and primer or improper surface preparation.
Alternate top bevel with raker (ATB/R)
A design for a circular saw blade where four alternately beveled teeth are followed by a raker too to remove debris from the cut.
Alternating Grain Direction
The process of gluing-up or laminating wood for project components with alternating pieces having the grain running perpendicular to one another (as opposed to parallel). Usually, this practice is enlisted to provide superior strength in a project that is expected to be under stress. It is also used occasionally for decorative purposes.
Alternating Top Bevel
Circular saw blade tooth cut pattern where the carbide tips on each tooth are cut with a point that alternates back and forth for each tooth, similar to a cross-cut pattern on a hand saw.
Aluminum Oxide
A synthetic abrasive used as the cutting agent on sandpaper and other coated abrasives. The most desirable all-around abrasive for wood finishing. It is produced in an electric furnace.
Aniline Dye
A synthetic colorant used extensively in the manufacture of wood stains. It may be formulated to dissolve in oil, water, or alcohol. It is especially well suited for stains because of its permanence and because it is transparent.
Annual Rings
Growth rings of a tree caused by the variation in growth rate between spring and summer. Summerwood is denser and darker in color than springwood. Also called annular rings and annual growth rings.
Refers to any object at least 100 years old and 80% original. The standard is set by U.S. Customs.
Apprentice, electric
A power tool. See Neanderthal.
Apron link
A frame around the base of a table to which the top and legs are fastened.
A shaft, driven by the tool's motor that turns blades or other cutting tools.
The sharp corner formed by the meeting of two adjacent surfaces of a board. For example, an arris is formed where the face and the edge of a board meet. Breaking the arris is the process of slightly sanding off the sharp arris to make it less likely that the finish will wear off at the arris.
Ascending grain
Wood fiber (grain pattern) that runs up into a progressing cut. This makes a smooth cut, in contrast to descending grain, which catches and tears instead of cutting cleanly.
A narrow, half-round molding. See Torus.
Auger bit
A common boring tool used with a bit brace. The cutting end has a tapered lead screw, two cutters, and two scoring nickers. The traditional shank end, for use with a bit brace, is a tapered square lug. There are two popular types of cutters. One, known as a Jennings type, consists of a long, flat, rectangular shank that is twisted into the famillair helix. The other, known as a Irwin bits, have a circular shank with one or two twisted flutes along the length.
Aught System
A system of grading different sizes of abrasive particles for use in coated abrasives. Most grades useful for wood finishing are designated by several zeros (aughts), the more zeros the finer the abrasive. Grade O (also written 1/0) corresponds to a medium grit, 00000 (5/0) is very fine. Coarser grits are designated by numbers that get larger as the grit gets coarser. Grade 1 is coarse and grade 4 is very coarse. This system has largely been supplanted by the more accurate mesh system.
Pointed instrument that looks like an ice pick, useful for marking positions when laying out a project.
American Wooden Planes. Nickname for Pollock's outstanding reference book "American Wooden Planes and Their Makers".
A simply tool consisting of a blade on the end of and at right-angles to a handle. Used to fell trees and rough-split lumber. Small versions are referred to as hatchets.
Small Japanese-style saw, double edged, with a curved blade for starting cuts in the middle of panels.

RD Glossary by Run Digital